Washers are flat, thin, and usually circular discs with a central hole. They are commonly used in various applications to distribute the load of a threaded fastener, such as a bolt or nut. The primary purpose of washers is to prevent damage to the surface of the material being fastened and to provide a smooth surface for the nut or bolt to bear against, reducing friction. Washers can be made from various materials, including metal, plastic, or rubber, depending on the application. They are available in different types, such as flat washers, split washers, and lock washers, each serving specific purposes. In summary, washers are essential components in fastening systems, providing stability, preventing damage, and improving the efficiency of connections between various materials.